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This map is not intended to be legal advice and it is not necessarily complete and accurate. The map is based on Research Exceptions in Comparative Copyright by Flynn et al (2022), but uses labels that are not adopted in that work. It uses the word “Sufficient” to define the category that Flynn et al label as “open research exceptions,” meaning that the language of the exception can apply to reproductions or sharing of any work, by any user for research. The authors do not conclude that such exceptions can necessarily permit text and data mining uses. There may be interpretations of the law that broaden or narrow the scope of application of the exceptions.


Restrictions on Sharing

Restrictions on Works

Legal Source

Law of April 18, 2001, on Copyright and Related Rights and Databases

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Art. 10. When the work, other than a database, has been lawfully made accessible to the public, the author may not prohibit:...4. Reproduction on any medium by a natural person for his private use and for purposes not directly or indirectly commercial, provided that the rights holders receive fair compensation, which takes into account the application of the technical measures referred to in articles 71ter to 71quinquies of this law to the works concerned.

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